Manage the Elephants and the Vultures Will Recover… PERIOD
Elephant numbers in the SADC countries south of the Zambezi River are overall overpopulated with insufficient landscape available.
A super species out competing all other wildlife and biodiversity, and physically destroying most habitats at various ecological levels.
Scientific assessment revealed large trees (>5-8m height), acting as hosts for vulture & raptor nesting in Kruger National Park, to be reduced from 23 trees/ha with 1 elephant/500ha in 1966 to almost no trees remaining in 2022 with 1 elephant/100ha.
Similar scenarios has been measured also for other Reserves and Protected Areas across South Africa where active vulture breeding colonies had been demolished due to loss of nest-hosting trees by elephants. In some instances, as secondary measure, vulture restaurants aided as supplement feeding for survival, though nesting and breeding remain the primary limitation.
The detrimental negative effect of elephants also significantly noted on most other game species as well as the overall ecological veld condition. (Seloana MQ et al 2017, Ferreira CNCH 2004, Pauw JC 1988, Furstenburg D 2022, 1991, Gadd M 2002, Louw A et al 2021, Midgely J et al 2020, Hayward M 2010, Kiker GA et al 2014, and many more)
Also read: https://maroelamedia.co.za/nuus/sa-nuus/lang-pad-na-herstel-vir-kruger-aasvoels/?mc_cid=d9f2bd643f&mc_eid=c622557d02